Учебная работа. How does Russia perceive India in the post-Cold War period? Is Russia-India relations are of the the same cordiality and friendship as it was during the Soviet period?

How does Russia perceive India in the post-Cold War period? Is Russia-India relations are of the the same cordiality and friendship as it was during the Soviet period?


Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования




Мошеев Тимур Артурович


«How does Russia perceive India in the post-Cold War period? Is Russia-India relations are of the the same cordiality and friendship as it was during the Soviet period?»and the International System


-го курса очной формы обучения


«Международные отношения»

Москва 2013


Soviet-Indian relationship from the Khrushchev period to 1991 was a very friendly one. A cordial relationship with India that began in the 1950s represented the most successful of the Soviet attempts to foster closer relations with Third World countries. The relationship began with a visit by Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru to the Soviet Union in June 1955 and Khrushchev’s return trip to India in the fall of 1955. While in India, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union supported Indian sovereignty over the Kashmir and Portuguese enclaves. The Soviet Union declared its neutrality during the 1959 border dispute and the Sino-Indian war of 1962, although the Chinese strongly objected. Nehrus socialistic inclinations and his Anglicized distaste for Americans drew him closer then to USSR and China, Nehrus self-righteousness in foreign affairs was equally matched by US secretary of State, Dulles who as early as 1947 remarked that «Soviet Communism exercises a strong influence through the interim Hindu Government».USSR gave India substantial economic and military assistance during the Khrushchev period, and by 1960 India had received more Soviet assistance than China had. This disparity became another made in nonconvertible national currencies, helping to conserve India’s scarce foreign exchange., the Soviet Union became a significant arms supplier to India, and a significant economic relationship also developed. In 1990, the Soviet-Indian trade turnover was $5.5 billion (of which the Russian republic had a 60% share).s military dependence on Russia can be said to be virtually total since 1965 in terms of military hardware for all three arms of its armed forces. After 30 years of reliance on Soviet produced hardware, India finds itself in a position where its armed forces are critically dependent on Russian equipment and spares to the tune of: Army — 75%; Air Force — 80%; Navy — 85%.when Gorbachev came into power and disintegration of USSR took place, he had given notice of change of priorities in Russias foreign policies in favour of China at his famous Vladivostok speech. Somehow India missed noticing Russias switch in priorities i.e. a China predominant policy as early as 1986. It was Gorbachev who called for a new China Policy and it was he who called for an end to a China encirclement policy and it was Gorbachev who conceded Chinas basic demands for normalization of relations: Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Soviet pressure to get Vietnamese withdrawal from Cambodia and the reduction of Soviet military presence along its borders with China., I must say that in 1985 and 1986, 1988, both India and USSR signed pacts to boost bilateral trade and provide Soviet investment and technical assistance for Indian industrial, telecommunications, and transportation projects. In 1985 and 1988, the Soviet Union also extended to India credits of 1 billion rubles and 3 billion rubles, respectively (a total of about US$2.4 billion), for the purchase of Soviet machinery and goods.

soviet indian khrushchev assistance


the Soviet Union disintegrated, India was faced with the difficult task of reorienting its external affairs and forging relations with the fifteen Soviet successor states, of which Russia was the most important. In 1993 New Delhi and Moscow worked to redefine their relationship according to post-Cold War realities. During the January 1993 visit of Russian president Boris Yeltsin to India, the two countries signed agreements that signaled a new emphasis on economic cooperation in bilateral relations.1971 treaty was replaced with the new Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which dropped security clauses that in the Cold War were directed against the United States and China. Yeltsin stated that Russia would deliver cryogenic engines and space technology for India’s space program under a $350 million deal between the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Russian space agency, Glavkosmos, despite the imposition of sanctions on both organizations by the United States.addition, Yeltsin expressed strong support for India’s stand on Kashmir. Russia urged India to support the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and decided in March 1992 to apply «full-scope safeguards» to future nuclear supply agreements. Russia also shares interests with the United States in cooling antagonisms between India and Pakistan, particularly with regard to Kashmir, thus making it unlikely that India could count on Russia in a future dispute with Pakistan.relations between India and Russia improved as a result of eight agreements signed in December 1994. The agreements cover military and technical cooperation from 1995 to 2000, merchant shipping, and promotion and mutual protection of investments, trade, and outer space cooperation. Political observers saw the visit of Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin that occasioned the signing of the eight agreements as a sign of a return to the earlier course of warm relations between New Delhi and Moscow. In March 1995, India and Russia signed agreements aimed at suppressing illegal weapons smuggling and drug trafficking.the other hand, the informal suggestion made by the then Prime Minister Eugeny Primakov during his visit to New Delhi in 1998, regarding a «strategic triangle» between Russia, China and India did not at that time evoke enthusiastic response either in India or in China. Our country realized that all the three angles of the proposed triangle are not equal, as mutual apprehension and difficulties between India and China do persist. Moreover, individually each of these three countries has economic and trade transactions with the Western countries on a much larger scale than with one another.made Russia took the lead in proposing close coordination in Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC) framework. Russia has also supported India full membership of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and UN Security Council. Putins emphasis on developing close ties with Europe and the USA did not preclude the policy of cultivating India as an important partner. This was seen in his visit to India in October 2000, where a declaration on strategic partnership was signed, along with several economic and military-technical cooperation agreements. The agreement on strategic partnership was an attempt to place the bilateral relationship on a higher level, and also attempted to institutionalize the relationship, by having annual summits and increased cooperation between the foreign ministries of the two states. It was also agreed to enhance the role of the Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation. Political cooperation between the two states has been very good. Combating international terrorism is becoming a more important aspect of the Russo-Indian relationship.declaration on this subject had been made when Indian prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Moscow in November 2001. It was agreed during Putins visit in December 2002 to set up a Joint Working Group (JWG) on the subject. This held its first meeting in September 2003, and its second in April 2004. At the second meeting, both sides agreed on a five-currently is only one of two countries in the world (the other being Japan) that has a mechanism for annual ministerial-level defence reviews with India. The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC), which is one of the largest and comprehensive governmental mechanisms that India has had with any country internationally. Almost every department from the Government of India attends it. India and Russia can surely continue to have good friendly relations based on their proximity of the past. India and Russia can surely look for convergence of interests in the international field. However, seeking convergence with Russia cannot be at the expense of Indias quest for newer strategic cooperative link with countries like USA, France, Israel, Vietnam, Japan and South Africa., in my opinion, partnership between Russia and India is a crucial. The future of East Asia and Central Asia regions is the future of the world, because by providing infrastructure projects, security guarantees in region and humanitarian development, its became possible to re-create some kind of Silk Route. Connections with Central Asia could allow to gain an access to new resources and territories, by upgrading infrastructure in small countries of region we can improve trading with them and this will help to raise the standard of living and include this territories in global community. Here is key for Russian future progress and Indian though. And I think that SCO could be a leading organization in future development of practical relations and cooperation between countries. Especially, about Afghanistan problem, because Afghanistan is a key for stability in region and making infrastructural projects.course, Russia «China First» policy was vigorously pursued by President Yeltsin, and received active pursuance by President Putin. And this is not bad, because PRC has a huge geopolitical and economic power in region, and for our security and economy China is a vital friend. Prosperity of China could lead neighbors to success though, cause its geopolitical position and economy growing speed makes PRC a soft friend, because Chinese government is afraid of any crises. India has a crucial role in security stability and by economy growing soon country will be more interesting for Russia and China not only in political sphere, but historical friendship is very useful for Russians to start new business relations here., for me, Russias desire to improve relations with India is a key «Relations with India have always been and I am sure will be one of the most important foreign policy priorities of our country. Our mutual ties of friendship are filled with sympathy, and trust, and openness. And we must say frankly that they were never overshadowed by disagreements or conflict. This understanding — this is indeed the common heritage of our peoples. It is valued and cherished in our country, in Russia, and in India. And we are rightfully proud of so close, so close relations between our countries.»


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Учебная работа. How does Russia perceive India in the post-Cold War period? Is Russia-India relations are of the the same cordiality and friendship as it was during the Soviet period?