Учебная работа. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation




Economic Cooperation

Student: Paltushev Azat




History of establishment


Scope of work

The structure


1. Preface

Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and
economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1989 in
response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the
advent of regional economic blocs (such as the European Union and the North
American Free Trade Area) in other parts of the world, APEC works to raise
living standards and education levels through sustainable economic growth and
to foster a sense of community and an appreciation of shared interests among
Asia-Pacific countries. Members account for approximately 40% of the world’s
population, approximately 54% of world GDP and about 44% of world trade.annual
APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting is attended by the heads of government of all
APEC members except the Republic of China (Taiwan) which is represented under
the name Chinese Taipei by a ministerial-level official. The location of the
meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition
involves the attending Leaders dressing in a national costume of the host

2. History of establishment

January 1989, Australian Prime
Minister Bob Hawke called for more effective economic cooperation across the
Pacific Rim region. This led to the first meeting of APEC in the Australian
capital Canberra in November, chaired by Australian Foreign Affairs Minister
Gareth Evans. Attended by political ministers from twelve countries, the
meeting concluded with commitments for future annual meetings in Singapore and
South Korea.initial proposal was opposed by countries of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which instead proposed the East Asia Economic
Caucus which would exclude non-Asian countries such as the United States,
Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The plan was opposed and strongly criticized
by Japan and the United States.first APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting occurred in
1993 when U.S. president Bill Clinton, after discussions with Australian Prime
Minister Paul Keating, invited the heads of government from member economies to
a summit on Blake Island. He believed it would help bring the stalled Uruguay
Round of trade talks on track. At the meeting, some leaders called for continued
reduction of barriers to trade and investment, envisioning a community in the
Asia-Pacific region that might promote prosperity through cooperation. The APEC
Secretariat, based in Singapore, was established to coordinate the activities
of the organisation.the meeting in 1994 in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC Leaders
adopted the Bogor Goals that aim for free and open trade and investment in the
Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialized economies and by 2020 for developing
economies. In 1995, APEC established a business advisory body named the APEC
Business Advisory Council (ABAC), composed of three business executives from
each member economy.

economic cooperation
asia trade membership

3. Membership

. Trade and Investment

. Business Facilitation

. Economic and Technical
CooperationBusiness Advisory CouncilAPEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was
created by the APEC Economic Leaders in November 1995 with the aim of providing
advice to the APEC Economic Leaders on ways to achieve the Bogor Goals and
other specific business sector priorities, and to provide the business
perspective on specific areas of cooperation.economy nominates up to three
members from the private sector to ABAC. These business leaders represent a
wide range of industry sectors.provides an annual report to APEC Economic
Leaders containing recommendations to improve the business and investment
environment in the Asia-Pacific region, and outlining business views about
priority regional issues.is also the only non-governmental organisation that is
on the official agenda of the APEC Economic Leader’s Meeting.

has requested membership in APEC,
and received initial support from the United States, Japan and Australia.
Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons. However,
the decision was made not to admit more members until 2010. Moreover, India
does not border the Pacific which all current members do. The Philippines trade
negotiator was quoted as saying that there is concern that "Once the
Indians come in, the (Asian) weighting would become heavier in this part of the

addition to India, Mongolia,
Pakistan, Laos, Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Ecuador, are among a
dozen countries seeking membership in APEC by 2008. Colombia applied for APEC’s
membership as early as in 1995, but its bid was halted as the organization
stopped accepting new members from 1993 to 1996, and the moratorium was further
prolonged to 2007 due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Costa Rica, Colombia
and Ecuador hope to become members in 2010. Guam has also been actively seeking
a separate membership, citing the example of Hong Kong, but the request is
opposed by the United States, which currently represents Guam.its formation in
1989, APEC has held annual meetings with representatives from all member economies.
The first four annual meetings were attended by ministerial-level officials.
Beginning in 1993, the annual meetings are named APEC Economic Leaders’
Meetings and are attended by the heads of government from all member economies
except Taiwan, which is represented by a ministerial-level official. The annual
Leaders’ Meetings are not called summits.

. Scope of Work

Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
works in three broad areas to meet the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and
investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for developed economies and 2020 for
developing economies. outcomes of these three areas enable APEC Member
Economies to strengthen their economies by pooling resources within the region
and achieving efficiencies. Tangible benefits are also delivered to consumers
in the APEC region through increased training and employment opportunities,
greater choices in the marketplace, cheaper goods and services and improved
access to international markets.and Investment Liberalisation and Investment
Liberalisation reduces and eventually eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers
to trade and investment. Protectionism is expensive because it raises prices
for goods and services. Thus, Trade and Investment Liberation focuses on
opening markets to increase trade and investment among economies, resulting in
economic growth for APEC Member Economies and increased standards of living for
all. This goal is also now furthered by APEC’s Regional Economic Integration
agenda, which includes work on model measures for bilateral and regional trade
agreements and an examination of the prospects for a Free Trade Area of the
Asia-Pacific.FacilitationFacilitation focuses on reducing the costs of business
transactions, improving access to trade information and aligning policy and
business strategies to facilitate growth, and free and open trade. Essentially,
Business Facilitation helps importers and exporters in Asia Pacific meet and
conduct business more efficiently, thus reducing costs of production and
leading to increased trade, cheaper goods and services and more employment
opportunities due to an expanded economy. APEC’s Structural Reform agenda
addresses this area: it focuses on reforming domestic policies and institutions
that adversely affect the operation of markets, and the capacity of businesses
to access markets and to operate efficiently. and Technical Cooperation
(ECOTECH)is dedicated to providing training and cooperation to build capacities
in all APEC Member Economies to take advantage of global trade. This area builds
capacity at the institutional and personal level to assist APEC Member
Economies and its people gain the necessary skills to meet their economic

5. The structure

Observers Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) has three Official Observers: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Pacific Islands
Forum Secretariat. These observers participate in APEC meetings and have full
access to documents and information related to these meetings. The observer
groups provide partnership, expertise and insight that assist APEC to attain
its goals and implement its initiatives. of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
SecretariatASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the
Association are: accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural
development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality
and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful
community of Southeast Asian nations, and promote regional peace and stability
through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship
among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United
Nations Charter.Economic Cooperation Council (PECC)is a unique tripartite
partnership of senior individuals from business and industry, government,
academic and other intellectual circles. participate in their private capacity
and discuss freely current, practical policy issues of the Asia-Pacific
region.aims to serve as a regional forum for cooperation and policy
coordination to promote economic development in the Asia-Pacific region, based
on the following premises — respective strengths of business and industry,
government, academic and other intellectual circles can be better focused to
promote the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, scientific and
technological development and environmental quality in the region, and , joint
ventures, mutual aid and other forms of linkage, when developed in a spirit of
partnership, fairness, respect and genuine cooperation, strengthen the
foundation needed for a prosperous, progressive and peaceful Pacific Region.
Islands Forum (PIF) Secretariatis the paramount regional inter-governmental
forum in the South Pacific. PIF addresses issues such as regional trade,
economic development, the environment and regional law enforcement, cooperation
and security in the South Pacific.


Policy Briefs in International Economics, Number P B 0 7 — 2, February 2007;

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding APEC;




Учебная работа. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation